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Table 2 Horizon comparison between preference measurement methods

From: Research frameworks, methodologies, and assessment methods concerning the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage: a review

Methods Semantic Differentials (SD) Stated Preferences (SP) Means-End Chain (MEC)
Author(s) Osgood et al. (1957) Kroes and Sheldon (1988) Rokeach (1973)
Core Semantic Differential Scale Random Utility Theory Means-End Chain Theory
Differences i) Questionnaire based on the real environment
ii) Use a series of adjective pairs to describe the problem
i) Questionnaire based on virtual/real environment
ii) Control for relationships between attributes
iii) Strict requirements for the sample size
i) Semi-structured interviews based on a series of pre-set questions
iv) Complete investigation through semantic analysis
  1. Source: The author 2020