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Table 2 The heritage protection laws in Gulf Cooperation Countries

From: New perspectives on World Heritage management in the GCC legislation

Legally binding principal cultural heritage law
Country Year of issue Full name
Kuwait 1960 Princely Decree No. 11 of 1960 of the Law of Antiquities, amended by Law 9 of 1994 Establishing the Council for Culture, Arts and Letters.
Qatar 1980 Law No. 2 of 1980 on Antiquities.
(Draft new law is under review)
Bahrain 1995 Decree-Law No 11 of 1995 for the Protection of Antiquities.
Saudi Arabia 2014 Royal Decree No 9/M of 2014 issuing Law of Antiquities, Museums and Urban Heritage.
Oman 2019 Cultural Heritage Law promulgated by Royal Decree 35/2019, amended by the Royal Decree 41/2020.
United Arab Emirates 2017 Federal Law
2020 Sharjah
Federal Law No. 11 of 2017 on Antiquities;
Law No. 4 of 2020 on Cultural Heritage of Sharjah.