Skip to main content

Built Heritage Conservation and Contemporary Urban Development: The Contribution of Architectural Practice to the Challenges of Modernisation

Abstract

An insight into the shared history of built heritage and urban development along the 20th century reveals different attempts to solve the dialectic conflict between conservation and modernisation from the discipline of architecture. This paper makes a review of the nature, aims and results of these attempts, highlighting the contributions to the discussion that originated from Italy between the 1950s and 1980s. It points to the challenges brought by the 1972 World Heritage Convention and the extent of social, economic and urban changes that have contributed to raise awareness about urban heritage in the present time. The article departs from a value-centred framework in order to describe current architectural, cultural, economic and social issues concerning the contribution of architecture and urban planning to heritage conservation in the age of globalization. This insight will delineate new conservation practices, strategies and methodologies, especially relating to the 2011 Historic Urban Landscape Recommendation and its declared goal for sustainable urban development.

References

  • Abalos, I., and Sentkiewicz, R. 2015. Essays on Thermodynamics, Architecture and Beauty. Barcelona: Actar.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abramson, D.B. 2007. “The Aesthetics of City-scale Preservation in Beijing.” Planning Perspectives, 22: 129–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments. 1931

  • Bandarin, F. and Van Oers, R. 2012. The Historic Urban Landscape. Hoboken: Wiley.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Berman, M. 1981. All that is Solid Melts into Air. The Experience of Modernity. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  • Caniggia, G. and Maffei, G.L. 1982. Composizione architettonica e tipología edilizia. Venezia: Marsilio.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cataldi G., Maffei G. L. and Vaccaro, P. 2002. “Saverio Muratori and the Italian School of Planning Typology.” Urban Morphology 6 (1): 3–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cervellati, P.L. and Scannavini, R. 1973. Bologna. Politica e Metodologia del Mestauro Mei Centri Storici. Bologna: Il Mulino.

    Google Scholar 

  • Choay, F. 1992. L’allegorie du Patrimoine. Paris: Editions de Seuil.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, E. 1988. “Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 15: 371–386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, E. 2010. “Tourism, Leisure and Authenticity.” Tourism Recreation Research 35 (1): 67–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Council of Europe. 1975. The Declaration of Amsterdam. Congress on the European Architectural Heritage. [Online] <http://www.icomos.org/en/charters-and-texts/179-articles-en-francais/ressources/charters-and-standards/169-the-declaration-of-amsterdam> [Accessed 8.30.2016]

  • Dalmas L., Geronimi, V., Nöel, J.F. and Tsang, T.K.S. 2015. “Economic Evaluation of Urban Heritage: an Inclusive Approach under a Sustainability Perspective.” Journal of Cultural Heritage 16: 681–687.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Florida, R. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Florida, R. 2008. Who’s Your City? How the Creative Economy is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fogue Herreros, U. 2015. Ecología Política y Economía de la Visibilidad de los Dispositivos Tecnológicos de Escala Urbana Durante el Siglo XX. Abriendo la Caja Negra. (Ph.D. Dissertation, unpublished). Madrid: Departamento de Proyectos Arquitectónicos, ETSA Madrid.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fredheim, L. H. and Khalaf, M. 2016. “The Significance of Values: Heritage Value Typologies Re-examined.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 22 (6): 466–481.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fuerst, F., McAllister, P. and Murray, C.B. 2011. “Designer Buildings: Estimating the Economic Value of ‘Signature’ Architecture.” Environment and Planning A 43: 166–184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • García Vázquez, C., González Martínez, P. and Sierra Hernández, M. 2014. Producción de nueva arquitectura en la ciudad de Sevilla y su relación con el paisaje, in Fernández-Baca Casares, R. (Ed.). Guía del Paisaje Histórico Urbano de Sevilla. Sevilla: Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía. Accessed August 30 2016. http://www.iaph.es/web/canales/patrimonio-cultural/guia_paisaje_historico_urbano_sevilla/estudios_tematicos.html

    Google Scholar 

  • Grodach, C. 2013. “Cultural Economy Planning in Creative Cities: Discourse and Practice.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (5): 1747–1765.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harrington, A. 2000. “Value Spheres or Validity Spheres? Weber, Habermas and Modernity.” Max Weber Studies 1: 84–103.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrison, R. 2009. “What is Heritage?, in Harrison, R. (Ed.).” Understanding the Politics of Heritage. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 5–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrison, R. 2015. Beyond ‘Natural’ and ‘Cultural’ Heritage: Towards an Ontological Politics of Heritage in the Age of Anthropocene. Heritage and Society 8 (1): 24–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, D. 1989. “From Managerialism to Entrepreneurialism: The Transformation in Urban Governance in Late Capitalism.” Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography 71 (1): 3–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutton, T. 2004. “The New Economy of the Inner city.” Cities 21 (2): 89–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keane, M. 2009. “The Capital Complex. Beijing’s new Creative Clusters, in Kong, L., O’Connor, J.” Creative Economies, Creative Cities. Asian–European Perspectives. New York: Springer: 77–95.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites). 1964. International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites’. Accessed August 30 2016. http://www.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.pdf

  • ICOMOS. 1987. Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (Washington Charter).

  • Accessed May 3 2016. www.icomos.org/charters/towns_e.pdf

  • ICOMOS Australia. 2013. The Burra Charter. Accessed August 30 2016. http://australia.icomos.org/publications/charters/

  • ICOMOS China. 2015. Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ley, D. 2003. “Artists, Aesthetization and the Field of Gentrification.” Urban Studies 40 (12): 2527–2544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Latour, B. 1998. “To Modernize or to Ecologize? That’s the Question, in Castree, N. and Willemsbraun, B. (eds.).” Remaking Reality: Nature at the Millenium. London and New York: Routledge: 221–242.

    Google Scholar 

  • Li, Y. 2016. “Humble Opinions on Urban Micro-regeneration. Referring to Public Policy, Architectural Rethinking and Urban Authenticity.” Time + Architecture 2016(4): 6–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Migayrou, F. 2012. La Tendenza: Architectures Italiennes 1965–1985. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leon, N. 2008. “Attract and Connect: The 22@Barcelona Innovation District and the Internationalisation of Barcelona Business.” Innovation Management, Policy & Practice 10 (2–3): 235–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Munoz, F. 2010. Urbanalización. Paisajes Comunes, Lugares Globales. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pacho, J. 2005. Positivismo y Darwinismo. Madrid: Ediciones Akal.

    Google Scholar 

  • Panero, Á. 2011. Patrimonio Mundial y Modelo de Ciudad. Ciudadanos, Energía y Medio Ambiente en Santiago de Compostela. In Fernández-Baca Casares, R.; Salmerón Escobar, P.; Sanz, N. (ed.). El Paisaje Histórico Urbano en las Ciudades Patrimonio Mundial. Indicadores Para su Conservación y Gestión II. Sevilla: Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía, pp. 227–237

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, R. A. 2005. “In Search of Authenticity.” Journal of Management Studies 42(5): 1083–1098

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poggeler, O. 1973. Heidegger Today, in Ballard, E.G.; Scott, C.E. Martin Heidegger: In Europe and America. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973, 1–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramos Guallart, J., Panero Pardo, A., Camiruaga Osés, I., Tomé Ferreiro, P., Fernández Hermida, R. 2003. La oficina de Conservación y Rehabilitación de la Ciudad Histórica de Santiago, 1994–2001. Informes de la Construcción 486(55): 15–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rannila, P; Loivaranta, T. 2015. “Planning as Dramaturgy. Agonistic Approaches to Spatial Enactment.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 39(4): 788–806

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ren, X.; Sun, M. 2012. “Artistic Urbanisation: Creative industries and Creative Control in Beijing.” International Journal of Urban Research 36(3): 504–521

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rossi, A. 1999. La Arquitectura de la Ciudad. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili.

    Google Scholar 

  • Riegl, A. 2007. El Culto Moderno a Los Monumentos. Su carácter y Sus Orígenes. Sevilla: Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmaling, S. 2006. “Masked Nostalgia, Chic Regression. The ‘Critical’ Reconstruction of Berlin.” The Harvard Design Magazine 23. Accessed September 12 2016. http://www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/issues/23/masked-nostalgia-chic-regression-the-critical-reconstruction-of-berlin

  • Secchi, B. 1984. “Le Condizioni sono Cambiate”. Casabella 498–499: 8–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott, A. 2006. “Creative Cities: Conceptual Issues and Policy Questions.” Journal of Urban Affairs 28(1): 1–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silverman, H. 2015. Heritage and Authenticity. The Palgrave Handbook of Contemporary Heritage Research. London: Palgrave Mac Millan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, L. 2006. Uses of Heritage. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Tafuri, M. 1980. Theories and History of Architecture. New York: Harper & Row.

    Google Scholar 

  • UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 1976. Recommendation concerning the Safeguard and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas (Nairobi Recommendation). Accessed June 3 2016. http://portal.unesco.org/es/ev.php-URL_ID=13133&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

  • UNESCO. 1994. The Nara Document on Authenticity. Accessed August 30 2016. http://whc.unesco.org/document/9379

  • UNESCO. 2002. World Heritage Papers 7. Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation. Accessed January 24 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001329/132988e.pdf

  • UNESCO. 2005. Vienna Memorandum on World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture—Managing the Historic Urban Landscape. Accessed June 3 2016. http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-47-2.pdf

  • UNESCO. 2011. Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. Accessed June 3 2016. http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/638

  • Wang, J. 2009. “Art in Capital: Shaping Distinctiveness in a Culture–led Urban Regeneration Project in Red Town, Shanghai.” Cities 26: 318–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, S.W.H. 2011. “Commercial Gentrification and Entrepreneurial Governance in Shanghai: A Case Study of Taikang Road Creative Cluster.” Urban Policy and Research 29 (4): 363–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, S. 2016. “City Revival by Chinese Original Architecture: the Preservation and Renovation of Zhongshan Road in Hangzhou.” Heritage Architecture 3: 19–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wansborough, M.; Mageean, A. 2000. “The Role of Urban Design in Cultural Regeneration.” Journal of Urban Design 5 (2): 181–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • WHITRAP (World Heritage Institute of Training and Research for the Asia and the Pacific Region). 2016. The HUL Guidebook. Managing Heritage in Dynamic and Constantly Changing Urban Environments. A Practical Guide to UNESCO’s Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. Accessed December 13 2016. http://historicurbanlandscape.com/themes/196/userfiles/download/2016/6/7/wirey5prpznidqx.pdf

  • Wu, F. 2003. “Globalisation, Place Promotion and Urban Development in Shanghai.” Journal of Urban Affairs 25(1): 55–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, L. 1991. “Rehabilitation in Beijing.” Habitat International 15(3): 51–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, K.; Zhang, Y. 2016. “Symbiotic Renewal. ‘Micro Yuaner’ by ZAO/standard architecture.” Time + Architecture 2016(4): 80–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhong, S. 2015. “Artists and Shanghai’s Culture-led Urban Regeneration.” Cities 56: 165–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zukin, S. 2010. Naked City. The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

González Martínez, P. Built Heritage Conservation and Contemporary Urban Development: The Contribution of Architectural Practice to the Challenges of Modernisation. Built Heritage 1, 14–25 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03545666

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03545666

Keywords

  • historic urban landscape
  • urban heritage and development
  • modern conservation theory
  • value-centred approach to urban heritage conservation
  • sustainability