Connecting Concepts of Cultural Landscape and Historic Urban Landscape: The Politics of Similarity
Built Heritage volume 2, pages 53–67 (2018)
This paper projects the concept of cultural landscapes into the realm of urban conservation in the context of the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) paradigm. To do this I take an historical overview of how, during the latter half of the 1980s and early 1990s, academic and professional interest in heritage studies started to embrace the cultural landscape construct. This movement continued through the 2000s with increasing links between theory and practice on urban conservation concerns and the concept of cities as cultural landscapes. In this connection the move in 2011 by UNESCO with the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape is particularly notable. Coincidental were two significant movements. First was increasing questioning of heritage as focusing narrowly on the monuments and sites mentality. Second has been the growing appreciation that urban conservation locking onto separate historic towns or specific parts of cities is counter-productive; it ignores towns and cities as holistic entities isolating historic areas virtually as museum pieces separate from the rest of the urban fabric and lacking sustainability. In contrast HUL with its landscape approach is a process1 that embraces—city-wide—cultural, natural, tangible and intangible, social, economic, visual and experiential aspects of the physical morphology of the city and the image of the city; it underpins the fundamental concept of urban areas as a series of layers through time that link past, present and future as in the construct of cultural landscape.
Ashworth, Gregory, and Brian Graham. 2012 “Heritage and the Reconceptualization of the Postwar European City.” In The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History, edited by Dan Stone, 582–599, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Askew, Marc. 2010. “The Magic List of Global Status: UNESCO, World Heritage and the Agencies of States.” In Heritage and Globalisation, Routledge Key Issues in Cultural Heritage Series, edited by Sophia Labadi and Colin Long, 19–44. Abingdon: Routledge.
Bandarin, Francesco, and Ron van Oers. 2012. The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Biger, Gideon. 1992. “Introduction: Ideology and Landscape.” In Ideology and Landscape in Historical Perspective, edited by Alan R. H. Baker and Gideon Biger, 1–14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Buckley Kristal, Steven Cooke, and Susan Fayad. 2016. “Using the Historic Urban Landscape to Re-Imagine Ballarat. The Local Context.” In Urban Heritage, Development and Sustainability: International Frameworks and Local Governance, edited by Labadi Sophia and Logan William, 93–113. Abingdon: Routledge.
Cameron, Christina, and Mechtild Rössler. 2013. Many Voices, One Vision: the Early Years of the World Heritage Convention. Farnham: Ashgate.
Cosgrove, Dennis, E. 1984. Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. London: Croom Helm.
Du Cros, Hilary. 2002. “Conflicting Perspectives on Marketing Hong Kong’s Cultural Heritage Tourism Attractions.” In Proceedings of ICOMOS 13th General Assembly, 319–321.
Fowler, Peter. 2001. “Cultural Landscape: Dreadful Phrase, Great Concept.” In The Cultural Landscape: Planning for Sustainable Partnerships between People and Place, 64–69. London: UK ICOMOS.
González Martínez, Plácido. 2017. “Urban Authenticity at Stake: A New Framework for Its Definition from the Perspective of Heritage at the Shanghai Music Valley.” Cities 70: 55–64.
Greffe, Xavier. 2010 “Urban Cultural Landscapes: An Economic Approach.” Working Paper 1/2010, Turin: Department of Economics, University of Turin. Accessed 15 September 2018. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254455944_Urban_cultural_landscapes_an_economic approach
Harrison, Rodney. 2013. Heritage: Critical Approaches. Abingdon: Routledge.
Harvey, David. 2001. “Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: Temporality, Meaning and the Scope of Heritage Studies.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 7 (4): 319–338.
Howard, Peter. 2003. Heritage: Management, Interpretation and Identity. London: Continuum.
ICOMOS. 1994. Nara Document on Authenticity. Paris, ICOMOS.
Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. 1994. A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Jacques, David. 1995. “The Rise of Cultural Landscapes.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 1 (2): 91–101.
Lewis, Peirce. 1979. “Axioms for Reading the Landscape. Some Guides to the American Scene.” In The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays, edited by Donald W. Meining, 11–32. New York: Oxford University Press.
Logan, William. 2010. “Development in World Heritage Studies in University Education.” In World Heritage and Diversity, edited by D. Offenhöußer, W. Zimmerli, M-T Albert, 38–45. Germany: German Commission for UNESCO.
Patten, Gerald. 1991. “Cultural Landscapes: The Intent and Tenor of the Times.” CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship 14 (6): 1–3.
Pimonsathean, Yongtanit. 2006. “Cultural Resources Management in Historic Community inBangkok: The Tha Tien Case.” Accessed 15 September 2018. http://wwwcujucr.com/downloads/pdf_4_2006/Yongtanit%20Pimonsathean.pdf
Plachter, Harald, and Michthild Rössler. 1995. “Cultural Landscapes: Reconnecting Culture and Nature.” In Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value: Components of a Global Strategy, edited by Bernd von Droste, Harald Plachter, and Michthild Rössler, 15–19. Jena: Fischer.
Poulios, Ioannis. 2014. Past in the Present: A Living Heritage Approach—Meteora, Greece. London: Ubiquity Press.
Poulios, Ioannis. 2015. “Gazing at the ‘Blue Ocean’, and Tapping into the Mental Models of Conservation: Reflections on the Nara+20 Document.” Heritage & Society 8 (1): 158–177.
Punekar, Anwar. 2006. “Value-led Heritage and Sustainable Development: The Case of Bijapur, India.” In Designing Sustainable Cities in the Developing World, edited by R. Zetter and G. Watson, 103–120. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Sirisrisak, Tiamsoon. 2009 “Conservation of Bangkok Old Town.” Habitat International 33 (4): 1–7.
Smith, Julian. 2010. “Marrying the Old with the New in Historic Urban Landscapes.” In World Heritage Papers 27 Managing Historic Cities, edited by Ron van Oers and Haraguchi Sachiko, 45–52. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
Stovel, Herb. 2007. “Effective Use of Authenticity and Integrity as World Heritage Qualifying Conditions.” City & Time 2 (3): 21–36.
Tantinipankul, Worrasit. 2014. “The Conservation of Thailand’s Sino-Thai Mercantile Heritage: TaladPhlu Canal Community of Bangkok.” Accessed 15 September 2018. http://www.arch.kmutt.ac.th/files/research/inter_Conference/2013/14.The%20Conservation%20of%20Thailand.pdf
Taylor, Ken. 2013a. “The Challenge of the Cultural Landscape Construct and Associated Intangible Values in an Asian Context.” In Asian Heritage Management: Contexts Concerns and Prospects, edited by Kapila D. Silva and Neel Kamal Chapagain, 189–211. Abingdon: Routledge.
Taylor, Ken. 2013b. “Cultural Mapping: Intangible Values and Engaging with Communities with Some Reference to Asia.” The Historic Environment: Policy and Practice 4 (1): 50–61.
Taylor, Ken. 2014. “Cultural Heritage Management: International Practice and Regional Applications.” In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, Vol. 3, edited by Claire Smith, 1939–1951. New York: Springer.
Taylor, Ken. 2015. “Cities as Cultural Landscapes.” In Reconnecting the City: The Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage, edited by Francesco Bandarin and Ron van Oers, 179–202. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Taylor, Ken. 2017. “Landscape, Culture and Heritage: Changing Perspectives in an Asian Context.” Deakin University Library, Australia. Accessed 15 September 2018. http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30102152
Throsby, David. 2010. The Economics of Cultural Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
UNESCO. 2011. Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. Accessed 15 September 2018. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=48857&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
UNESCO. 2013. New Life for Historic Cities: The Historic Urban Landscape Approach Explained. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
Van Oers, Ron. 2010. “Managing Cities and the Historic Urban Landscape Initiative—An Introduction.” In UNESCO World Heritage Papers 27 Managing Historic Cities, edited by Ron van Oers and S. Haraguchi, 7–17. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
Wijesuriya, Gamini, Jane Thompson, and Christopher Young. 2013. Managing World Cultural Heritage. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre in association with ICCROM, ICOMOS and IUCN.
Winter, Tim. 2014. “Beyond Eurocentrism? Heritage Conservation and the Politics of Difference.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 20 (2): 123–137.
About this article
Cite this article
Taylor, K. Connecting Concepts of Cultural Landscape and Historic Urban Landscape: The Politics of Similarity. Built Heritage 2, 53–67 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03545710