Skip to main content

Prediction of Wind Erosion over a Heritage Site: A Case Study of Yongling Mausoleum, China

Abstract

To protect heritage buildings better, a method exploiting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was developed for the analysis of wind erosion at a heritage site. Over a two-year period, we collected measurements of hourly weather data at Xinbin County to obtain statistics of wind speeds and directions for the Yongling Mausoleum. Subsequent results from CFD simulations show that before greening, with wind speeds reaching 10 m/s, certain structures (southwest-facing corners, doors and windows on open sides, places where swirling winds develop, and eaves of sloping roofs) of four heritage buildings were eroded more severely. With appropriate greening, plants may exert their unique ecological presence to better protect heritage buildings and their historical environments. After greening, the severity of damage to these vulnerable structures by wind was reduced. With wind speeds reaching 10 m/s, the average pressure on the structures of each building was 0.41–27.85 Pa, representing a reduction of 2.4%–75.6% from pressures before greening. We also constructed a 1:500-scale model to verify in experiments the correctness of CFD simulation qualitatively. The CFD simulations were found to provide an effective method to investigate and predict wind erosion of the heritage site.

References

  1. AIJ (Architectural Institue of Japan). 2006. Jianzhu yu chengshi kongjian lvhua guihua [Building and Urban Space Greening Planning]. Beijing: China Machine Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. ANSYS, I. 2015. ANSYS FLUENT 16.0. Theory Guide. http://www.ansys.com

  3. Bitog, J. P., I.-B. Lee, H.-S. Hwang, M.-H. Shin, S.-W. Hong, I.-H. Seo, K.-S. Kwon, E. Mostafa, and Z. Pang. 2012. “Numerical Simulation Study of a Tree Windbreak.” Biosystems Engineering 111 (1): 40–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Blocken, B. 2015. “Computational Fluid Dynamics for Urban Physics: Importance, Scales, Possibilities, Limitations and Ten Tips and Tricks Towards Accurate and Reliable Simulations.” Building and Environment (91): 219–245.

  5. Blocken, B., S. Roels, and J. Carmeliet. 2007. “A Combined CFD–HAM Approach for Wind-driven Rain on Building Facades.” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 95 (7): 585–607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dai, Shibing, and Peng Zhang. 2014. Lishi jianzhu cailiao xiufu jishu daoze [Proposed Technical Guideline for Conservation of Historic Architectural Materials]. Shanghai: Tongji University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Dong, F., D. Liu, and D. He. 1995. “Research Progress and Development Trends of Wind and Sand Movement.” Advances in Mechanics 25 (3): 368–382.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Gromke, C., and B. Blocken. 2015. “Influence of Avenue-trees on Air Quality at the Urban Neighborhood Scale. Part I: Quality Assurance Studies and Turbulent Schmidt Number Analysis for RANS CFD Simulations.” Environment Pollution 196: 214–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hanna, Steven R., Gary A. Briggis, and Rayford P. Hosker Jr. 1982. Handbook on Atmospheric Diffusion. DOE/ TIC-11223. Technical Information Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

  10. Hong, B., and J. Luo. 2015. Landscaping Design Strategy to Improve Outdoor Microclimate in Residential Areas. Xi’an: Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kaltschmitt, Martin, Wolfgang Streicher, and Andreas Wiese, eds. 2007. Re newable Energy: Technology, Economics, and Environ ment. Springer.

  12. Ji, Yaqin, Chunyan Shan, and Baoqing Wang. 2015. Turang fengshi yuanli he yanjiu fangfa ji kongzhi jishu [Principle, Research Method and Control Technology of Soil wind Erosion]. Beijing: Science Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Langenbach, R. 2007. “From ‘Opus Craticium’ to the ‘Chicago Frame’: Earthquake-Resistant Traditional Construction.” International Journal of Architectural Heritage 1 (1): 29–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Martin Kaltschmitt, W. S., and Andreas Wiese. 2007. Renewable Energy: Technology, Economics, and Environment. Springer.

  15. Orszag, S. A. a. Y., V. 1986. “Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence.” In Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Berkeley, 1395–1399.

  16. Orszag, S. A., V. Yakhot, W. S. Flannery, F. Boysan, D. Choudhury, J. Maruzewski, and B. Patel. 1993. “Renormalization Group Modeling and Turbulence Simulations.” In International Conference on Near-Wall Turbulent Flows, Tempe, Arizona.

  17. Ortiz, R., and P. Ortiz. 2016. “Vulnerability Index: A New Approach for Preventive Conservation of Monuments.” International Journal of Architectural Heritage 10 (8): 1078–1100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Pineda, P., and A. Iranzo. 2017. “Analysis of Sand-Loaded Air Flow Erosion in Heritage Sites by Computational Fluid Dynamics: Method and Damage Prediction.” Journal of Cultural Heritage 25: 75–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Tong, Z., R. W. Baldauf, V. Isakov, P. Deshmukh, and K. Max Zhang. 2016. “Roadside Vegetation Barrier Designs to Mitigate Near-road Air Pollution Impacts.” Science of the Total Environment 541: 920–927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Xiao, Yongqin, and Yaoqing Sun. 2016. Zhiwu peizhi yu zaojing [Plant Configuration and Landscaping]. Beijing: China Agricultural University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Zhan, K., S. Liu, Z. Yang, E. Fang, L. Zhou, and N. Huang. 2016. “Effects of Sand-Fixing and Windbreak Forests on Wind Flow: A Synthesis of Results from Field Experiments and Numerical Simulations.” Journal of Arid Land 9 (1): 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Zhang, H., and J. Cheng. 2014. Principles of Soil Erosion, 3rd Edition. Beijing: Science Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiaoyu Wang.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, X., Meng, J., Zhu, T. et al. Prediction of Wind Erosion over a Heritage Site: A Case Study of Yongling Mausoleum, China. Built Heritage 3, 41–57 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03545718

Download citation

Keywords

  • computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
  • numerical simulation
  • wind erosion
  • greening plan
  • heritage conservation