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Applications of Non-destructive Tests for Diagnosis of Heritage Buildings: Case Studies from Singapore and Malaysia


Non-destructive tests have been increasingly used in historic buildings not only for pre-restoration investigation but also as useful tools to evaluate the effectiveness of eventual interventions. These tests can complement and supplement destructive tests like laboratory analysis of extracted samples as long as a sound sampling plan has been put in place to commensurate with the pattern and extent of dilapidation and materials distribution. Common methods employed in projects in Singapore and Malaysia include the infrared thermography, ground penetrating radar, microwave moisture tomography and ultrasonic pulse echo tomography. The paper discusses about a selection of case studies, demonstrating the application of various techniques for the identification of hidden details, defects and deterioration, and moisture detection.


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Correspondence to Chung Wan Wong.

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Wong, C.W. Applications of Non-destructive Tests for Diagnosis of Heritage Buildings: Case Studies from Singapore and Malaysia. Built Heritage 3, 14–25 (2019).

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  • non-destructive tests
  • infrared thermography
  • radar
  • ultrasonic pulse echo
  • microwave